10 tips to strive with diabetes

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Glucagon

Why is this medication prescribed?

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Glucagon is used to raise very low blood sugar. Glucagon is also used in diagnostic testing of the stomach and other digestive organs.

This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

How should this medicine be used?

Glucagon is usually given by injection beneath the skin, in the muscle, or in the vein. It comes as a powder and liquid that will need to be mixed just before administering the dose. Instructions for mixing and giving the injection are in the package. Glucagon should be administered as soon as possible after discovering that the patient is unconscious from low blood sugar. After the injection, the patient should be turned onto the side to prevent choking if they vomit. Once the glucagon has been given, contact your doctor. It is very important that all patients have a household member who knows the symptoms of low blood sugar and how to administer glucagon.

If you have low blood sugar often, keep a glucagon kit with you at all times. You should be able to recognize some of the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (i.e., shakiness, dizziness or lightheadedness, sweating, confusion, nervousness or irritability, sudden changes in behavior or mood, headache, numbness or tingling around the mouth, weakness, pale skin, sudden hunger, clumsy or jerky movements). Try to eat or drink a food or beverage with sugar in it, such as hard candy or fruit juice, before it is necessary to administer glucagon.

Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your pharmacist or doctor to explain any part you or your household members do not understand. Use glucagon exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before using glucagon,

•tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to glucagon, any other drugs, or beef or pork products.

•tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, including vitamins.

•tell your doctor if you have ever had adrenal gland problems, blood vessel disease, malnutrition, pancreatic tumors, insulinoma, or pheochromocytoma.

•tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Glucagon may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

•nausea

•vomiting

•rash

•itching

Brand names

•GlucaGen® Diagnostic Kit

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10 Things That Can Spike Your Blood Sugar

When you first found out you had diabetes,  you tested your blood sugar often to understand how food, activity, stress, and illness could affect your blood sugar levels. By now, you’ve got it figured out for the most part. But then—bam! Something makes your blood sugar zoom up. You try to adjust it with food or activity or insulin, and it dips low. You’re on a rollercoaster no one with diabetes wants to ride.

Knowledge is power! Look out for these surprising triggers that can send your blood sugar soaring:

  1. Sunburn—the pain causes stress, and stress increases blood sugar levels.
  2. Artificial sweeteners—more research needs to be done, but some studies show they can raise blood sugar.
  3. Coffee—even without sweetener. Some people’s blood sugar is extra-sensitive to caffeine.
  4. Losing sleep—even just one night of too little sleep can make your body use insulin less efficiently.
  5. Skipping breakfast—going without that morning meal can increase blood sugar after both lunch and dinner.
  6. Time of day—blood sugar can be harder to control the later it gets.
  7. Dawn phenomenon—people have a surge in hormones early in the morning whether they have diabetes or not. For people with diabetes, blood sugar can spike.
  8. Dehydration—less water in your body means a higher blood sugar concentration.
  9. Nose spray—some have chemicals that trigger your liver to make more blood sugar.
  10. Gum disease—it’s both a complication of diabetes and a blood sugar spike.

Watch out for other triggers that can make your blood sugar fall. For example, extreme heat can cause blood vessels to dilate, which causes insulin absorb more quickly and could lead to low blood sugar. If an activity or food or situation is new, be sure to check your blood sugar levels before and after to see how you respond.

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The A1C Test & Diabetes

What is the A1C test?

The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research.

How does the A1C test work?

The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In the body, red blood cells are constantly forming and dying, but typically they live for about 3 months. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The A1C test result is reported as a percentage. The higher the percentage, the higher a person’s blood glucose levels have been. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent.

Can the A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes?

Yes. In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. 1 Previously, only the traditional blood glucose tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes.

Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes. However, some medical organizations continue to recommend using blood glucose tests for diagnosis.

1 The International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1327–1334.

Why should a person be tested for diabetes?

Testing is especially important because early in the disease diabetes has no symptoms. Although no test is perfect, the A1C and blood glucose tests are the best tools available to diagnose diabetes—a serious and lifelong disease.

Testing enables health care providers to find and treat diabetes before complications occur and to find and treat prediabetes, which can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes from developing.

Has the A1C test improved?

Yes. A1C laboratory tests are now standardized. In the past, the A1C test was not recommended for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes because the many different types of A1C tests could give varied results. The accuracy has been improved by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP), which developed standards for the A1C tests.

The NGSP certifies that manufacturers of A1C tests provide tests that are consistent with those used in a major diabetes study. The study established current A1C goals for blood glucose control that can reduce the occurrence of diabetes complications, such as blindness and blood vessel disease. 2

2 Nathan DM, Genuth S, Lachin J, et al. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1993:329(14)977–986.

How is the A1C test used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes?

The A1C test can be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes alone or in combination with other diabetes tests. When the A1C test is used for diagnosis, the blood sample must be sent to a laboratory that uses an NGSP-certified method for analysis to ensure the results are standardized.

Blood samples analyzed in a health care provider’s office, known as point-of-care (POC) tests, are not standardized for diagnosing diabetes. The following table provides the percentages that indicate diagnoses of normal, diabetes, and prediabetes according to A1C levels.

* Any test for diagnosis of diabetes requires confirmation with a second measurement unless there are clear symptoms of diabetes.
Diagnosis* A1C Level
Normal below 5.7 percent
Diabetes 6.5 percent or above
Prediabetes 5.7 to 6.4 percent

Having prediabetes is a risk factor for getting type 2 diabetes. People with prediabetes may be retested each year. Within the prediabetes A1C range of 5.7 to 6.4 percent, the higher the A1C, the greater the risk of diabetes. Those with prediabetes are likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years, but they can take steps to prevent or delay diabetes.

Is the A1C test used during pregnancy?

The A1C test may be used at the first visit to the health care provider during pregnancy to see if women with risk factors had undiagnosed diabetes before becoming pregnant. After that, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used to test for diabetes that develops during pregnancy—known as gestational diabetes. After delivery, women who had gestational diabetes should be tested for persistent diabetes. Blood glucose tests, rather than the A1C test, should be used for testing within 12 weeks of delivery.

Can blood glucose tests still be used for diagnosing type 2 diabetes and prediabetes?

Yes. The standard blood glucose tests used for diagnosing type 2 diabetes and prediabetes-the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and the OGTT—are still recommended. The random plasma glucose test, also called the casual glucose test, may be used for diagnosing diabetes when symptoms of diabetes are present. In some cases, the A1C test is used to help health care providers confirm the results of a blood glucose test.

Can the A1C test result in a different diagnosis than the blood glucose tests?

Yes. In some people, a blood glucose test may indicate a diagnosis of diabetes while an A1C test does not. The reverse can also occur—an A1C test may indicate a diagnosis of diabetes even though a blood glucose test does not. Because of these variations in test results, health care providers repeat tests before making a diagnosis.

People with differing test results may be in an early stage of the disease, where blood glucose levels have not risen high enough to show on every test. Sometimes, making simple changes in lifestyle—losing a small amount of weight and increasing physical activity—can help people in this early stage reverse diabetes or delay its onset.

Are diabetes blood test results always accurate?

All laboratory test results can vary from day to day and from test to test. Results can vary

  • within the person being tested. A person’s blood glucose levels normally move up and down depending on meals, exercise, sickness, and stress.
  • between different tests. Each test measures blood glucose levels in a different way. For example, the FPG test measures glucose that is floating free in the blood after fasting and only shows the blood glucose level at the time of the test. Repeated blood glucose tests, such as self-monitoring several times a day with a home meter, can record the natural variations of blood glucose levels during the day. The A1C test represents the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin, so it reflects an average of all the blood glucose levels a person may experience over 3 months. The A1C test will not show day-to-day changes.

The following chart shows how multiple blood glucose measurements over 4 days compare with an A1C measurement.

Blood Glucose Measurements Compared with A1C Measurements Over 4 Days

Blood glucose chart
Note: Blood glucose (mg/dL) measurements were taken four times per day (fasting or pre-breakfast, pre-lunch, pre-dinner, and bedtime).

The straight black line indicates an A1C measurement of 7.0 percent. The blue line shows blood glucose test results from self-monitoring four times a day over a 4-day period.

  • within the same test. Even when the same blood sample is repeatedly measured in the same laboratory, the results may vary due to small changes in temperature, equipment, or sample handling.

Health care providers take these variations into account when considering test results and repeat laboratory tests for confirmation. Diabetes develops over time, so even with variations in test results, health care providers can tell when overall blood glucose levels are becoming too high.

Comparing test results from different laboratories can be misleading. People should consider requesting new laboratory tests when they change health care providers, or if their health care provider’s office changes the laboratory or clinic it uses for blood testing.

How accurate is the A1C test?

The A1C test result can be up to 0.5 percent higher or lower than the actual percentage. This means an A1C measured as 7.0 percent could indicate a true A1C anywhere in the range from ~6.5 to 7.5 percent.

The drawing below illustrates the range of possible true values when an A1C is 7.0 percent on the lab report. This range is based on the inherent variability of the laboratory test, often referred to as the coefficient of variation. Different degrees of laboratory variability result in different ranges of possible true values. The range illustrated is the maximum allowed by test methods approved by NGSP.

Blood Glucose Range 5 percent
Courtesy of David Aron, M.D., Louis Stokes Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

To put the A1C test into perspective, an FPG test result of 126 mg/dL obtained from a laboratory test accounting for typical variability within an individual person could indicate a true FPG anywhere in the range from ~110 to 142 mg/dL. This variation will be even greater if the blood sample is not processed promptly or is not put on ice, causing blood glucose levels in the sample to decrease. The drawing below illustrates the range of possible true values for an FPG of 126 mg/dL.

Blood glucose range from 110 mg/dL to 145 mg/dL
Courtesy of David Aron, M.D., Louis Stokes Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Can the A1C test give false results?

Yes, for some people. The A1C test can be unreliable for diagnosing or monitoring diabetes in people with certain conditions that are known to interfere with the results. Interference should be suspected when A1C results seem very different from the results of a blood glucose test.

People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian descent, or people with family members with sickle cell anemia or a thalassemia are particularly at risk of interference. People in these groups may have a less common type of hemoglobin, known as a hemoglobin variant, that can interfere with some A1C tests. Most people with a hemoglobin variant have no symptoms and may not know that they carry this type of hemoglobin.

Not all of the A1C tests are unreliable for people with a hemoglobin variant. People with false results from one type of A1C test may need a different type of A1C test for measuring their average blood glucose level. The NGSP provides information for health care providers about which A1C tests are appropriate to use for specific hemoglobin variants at www.ngsp.org .

More information about problems with the A1C test and different forms of sickle cell anemia is provided in the NIDDK health topics:

False A1C results may also occur in people with other problems that affect their blood or hemoglobin. For example, a falsely low A1C result can occur in people with

  • anemia
  • heavy bleeding

A falsely elevated A1C result can occur in people who

  • are very low in iron, for example, those with iron deficiency anemia

Other causes of false A1C results include

  • kidney failure
  • liver disease
How is the A1C test used after diagnosis of diabetes?

Health care providers can use the A1C test to monitor blood glucose levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The A1C test is not used to monitor gestational diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes who are meeting treatment goals and have stable blood glucose levels have the A1C test twice a year. Health care providers may repeat the A1C test as often as four times a year until blood glucose levels reach recommended levels.

The A1C test helps health care providers adjust medication to reduce the risk of long-term diabetes complications. Studies have demonstrated substantial reductions in long-term complications with the lowering of A1C levels.

When the A1C test is used for monitoring blood glucose levels in a person with diabetes, the blood sample can be analyzed in a health care provider’s office using a POC test to give immediate results. However, POC tests are less reliable and not as accurate as most laboratory tests.

How does the A1C relate to estimated average glucose?

Estimated average glucose (eAG) is calculated from the A1C. Some laboratories report eAG with the A1C test results. The eAG number helps people with diabetes relate their A1C to daily glucose monitoring levels. The eAG calculation converts the A1C percentage to the same units used by home glucose meters—milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

The eAG number will not match daily glucose readings because it is a long-term average rather than the blood glucose level at a single time, as measured with the home glucose meter. The following table shows the relationship between the A1C and the eAG.

Relationship between A1C and eAG
Source: Adapted from American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Supp 1):S14–S80, table 8.
A1C eAG
Percent mg/dL
6 126
7 154
8 183
9 212
10 240
11 269
12 298
What A1C target should people have?

People will have different A1C targets depending on their diabetes history and their general health. People should discuss their A1C target with their health care provider. Studies have shown that people with diabetes can reduce the risk of diabetes complications by keeping A1C levels below 7 percent.

Maintaining good blood glucose control will benefit those with new-onset diabetes for many years to come. However, an A1C level that is safe for one person may not be safe for another. For example, keeping an A1C level below 7 percent may not be safe if it leads to problems with hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose.

Less strict blood glucose control, or an A1C between 7 and 8 percent—or even higher in some circumstances—may be appropriate in people who have

  • limited life-expectancy
  • long-standing diabetes and difficulty attaining a lower goal
  • severe hypoglycemia
  • advanced diabetes complications such as chronic kidney disease, nerve problems, or cardiovascular disease
Will the A1C test show changes in blood glucose levels?

Large changes in a person’s blood glucose levels over the past month will show up in their A1C test result, but the A1C does not show sudden, temporary increases or decreases in blood glucose levels. Even though the A1C represents a long-term average, blood glucose levels within the past 30 days have a greater effect on the A1C reading than those in previous months.

Points to Remember
  • The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months.
  • The A1C test is based on the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Thus, the A1C test reflects the average of a person’s blood glucose levels over the past 3 months.
  • In 2009, an international expert committee recommended the A1C test be used as one of the tests available to help diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.
  • Because the A1C test does not require fasting and blood can be drawn for the test at any time of day, experts are hoping its convenience will allow more people to get tested—thus, decreasing the number of people with undiagnosed diabetes.
  • In the past, the A1C test was not recommended for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes because the many different types of A1C tests could give varied results. The accuracy has been improved by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP), which developed standards for the A1C tests. Blood samples analyzed in a health care provider’s office, known as point-of-care (POC) tests, are not standardized for use in diagnosing diabetes.
  • The A1C test may be used at the first visit to the health care provider during pregnancy to see if women with risk factors had undiagnosed diabetes before becoming pregnant. After that, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used to test for diabetes that develops during pregnancy—known as gestational diabetes.
  • The standard blood glucose tests used for diagnosing type 2 diabetes and prediabetes—the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and the OGTT—are still recommended. The random plasma glucose test may be used for diagnosing diabetes when symptoms of diabetes are present.
  • The A1C test can be unreliable for diagnosing or monitoring diabetes in people with certain conditions that are known to interfere with the results.
  • The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes who are meeting treatment goals and have stable blood glucose levels have the A1C test twice a year.
  • Estimated average glucose (eAG) is calculated from the A1C to help people with diabetes relate their A1C to daily glucose monitoring levels.
  • People will have different A1C targets depending on their diabetes history and their general health. People should discuss their A1C target with their health care provider.

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Checks and Goals for Each Year

People who manage their diabetes care by eating healthy foods and living an active lifestyle often have good control of their blood sugar levels. Still, regular health checkups and tests are needed. These visits give you a chance to:

  • Ask your health care provider questions
  • Learn more about your diabetes and what you can do to keep your blood sugar in your target range
  • Make sure you are taking your medicines the right way

See Your Doctor

See your diabetes doctor for an exam every 3 to 6 months. During this exam, your doctor should check your:

  • Blood pressure
  • Weight
  • Feet

See your dentist every 6 months, also.

Eye Exams

An eye doctor should check your eyes every year. See an eye doctor who takes care of people with diabetes.

If you have eye problems because of diabetes, you will probably see your eye doctor more often.

Foot Exams

Your doctor should check the pulses in your feet and your reflexes at least once a year. Your doctor should also look for:

  • Calluses
  • Infections
  • Sores
  • Loss of feeling anywhere in your feet (peripheral neuropathy)

If you have had foot ulcers before, see your doctor every 3 to 6 months. It is always a good idea to ask your doctor to check your feet.

Hemoglobin A1C Tests

An A1c lab test shows how well you are controlling your blood sugar levels over a 3-month period.

The normal level is less than 5.7%. Most people with diabetes should aim for an A1C of less than 7%. Some people have a higher target. Your doctor will help decide what your target should be.

Higher A1C numbers mean that your blood sugar is higher and that you may be more likely to have complications from your diabetes.

Cholesterol

A cholesterol profile test measures cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. You should have this kind of test in the morning, after not eating since the night before.

Adults with type 2 diabetes should have this test every 5 years. People with high cholesterol may have this test more often.

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure should be measured at every visit.

Kidney Tests

Once a year, you should have a urine test that looks for a protein called albumin.

Your doctor will also have you take a blood test every year that measures how well your kidneys work.

Talk with your health care team about

  • How well you can tell when you have low blood glucose.
  • How you are treating high blood glucose.
  • Tobacco use (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco).
  • Your feelings about having diabetes.
  • Your plans for pregnancy (if a woman).

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Managing Your Diabetes at Work, School, and During Travel

Staying in charge of your diabetes no matter what your day holds—work, school, travel, or special events—takes planning ahead. Many days will go smoothly, but some days will hold surprises, such as extra activity or delays that throw your schedule off.

Plan ahead for these times by always keeping a treatment for low blood glucose. If you have any signs that your glucose may below, go ahead and treat it right away.

Stay as close to your eating, activity, and medicine schedule as you can. Keep track of your blood glucose so you can pick up changes early. Always wear or carry identification that says you have diabetes.

Talk with your health care team about your planned schedule and activities. Ask for help in planning ahead for work, school, travel, and special events. When you read the rest of this section, you may think of more questions to ask.

At Work and School

Talk with your health care team about the type of activity you do at work or at school. From time to time, you and your healthcare team may need to make changes in your activity, medicine, or eating.

Many people take supplies for checking their glucose to school or work so they can check if at regular break times. Some people choose to show their fellow workers, their teachers, or their classmates how to help if they should ever have a problem. They teach them how to tell when their glucose is low and how to treat it. Some people like to have written steps on file at their place of work or with their teacher.

During Travel

When you plan a trip, think about your day-to-day schedule and try to stay as close to it as you can. For example, if you usually check your blood glucose at noon and then eat lunch, plan to do this on your trip, as well. Trips can hold surprises—in delays and changes. Even the types of food and supplies you can buy on your trip may not be the same as those you get at home.

Before you travel, work with your health care provider to plan your timing for medicine, food, and activity. Talk about what to do if you find changes in your glucose readings.

Plan ahead for trips:

  • Keep snacks with you that could be used to prevent—or treat—low blood glucose.
  • Carry extra food and drink supplies with you, such as cracker packs and small cans of juices or bottled water.
  • Carry glucose testing supplies with you.
  • Take along all the diabetes medicine you’ll need. Keep medicines in the original pharmacy container with the printed label that clearly identifies the medicine.

When you travel, be sure to

  • Test your glucose often and keep track of it.
  • Wear identification that says you have diabetes.
  • Let others know how they can help you.
  • Check new airline travel tips by contacting the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) or 800-322-7873.

If you’re traveling in a different time zone, you may need to change your timing of food, medicine, and activity. Ask your health care provider to help you with this. Talk about the food and drink choices that would be healthy for you. If you’ll be in another country, ask your doctor to write a letter explaining that you have diabetes. It’s also a good idea to get your doctor to write a prescription for you to get insulin or supplies if needed.

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How to manage your diabetes?

 

Healthy eating, physical activity, and insulin injections are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. The amount of insulin taken must be balanced with food intake and daily activities. Blood glucose levels must be closely monitored through frequent blood glucose testing.

Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing are the basic therapies for type 2 diabetes. In addition, many people with type 2 diabetes require oral medication, insulin, or both to control their blood glucose levels.

People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care, and keep blood glucose levels from going too low or too high.

People with diabetes should see a health care provider who will monitor their diabetes control and help them learn to manage their diabetes. In addition, people with diabetes may see endocrinologists, who may specialize in diabetes care; ophthalmologists for eye examinations; podiatrists for routine foot care; and dietitians and diabetes educators who teach the skills needed for daily diabetes management.

 

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Episode 19: Diabetes Distress

In this episode Corinna Cornejo and Sarah Edwards discuss Registered Dietitian Vai Jun Lam’s Master Chat on diabetes distress, how to identify it and respond effectively.

The chronic aspect of diabetes is not an easy pill to swallow.  The magnitude of its effects in an individual’s lifestyle can be both overwhelming and daunting, physically and emotionally.  Diabetes distress is the confluence of anxiety and depression that can result from the challenges of daily diabetes management.  This presentation aims to talk about the relationship between anxiety and diabetes management, as anxiety and stress go hand-in-hand and can potentially affect one’s quality of life.  In fact the combination of anxiety and diabetes can exacerbate symptoms, however signs of anxiety can often be overlooked by many people.  This presentation includes various helpful tips to manage anxiety along with diabetes, as well as ways to recognize anxiety in your own or a loved one’s life.

Based in Hong Kong, Vai Jun Lam (also known as VJ) is a registered dietitian who has worked with patients of multiple backgrounds and conditions.  Her areas of expertise include nutrition support and diabetes management.  After graduating from McGill University in Canada, she worked in a community center that focused on weight management for children.  For the past two years ago, she has been a founding part of a multidisciplinary diabetes care team in Hong Kong where she provides individual and group counseling in English, Mandarin and Cantonese.  Her great interest in diabetes led her to pursue a master’s degree at Teachers College Columbia University.

 

The Master Chat Series is an annual collaboration between TuDiabetes and Teacher’s College Columbia University’s Master of Science in Diabetes Education and Management program.  This 36-credit inter-professional master’s program is offered to clinicians who are currently in or interested in the diabetes field. As part of a course requirement, students present ‘Master Chats’ on a variety of topics they have chosen based on discussions taking place in the TuDiabetes community. Master Chats include a short presentation followed by a Q and A, and are an opportunity not only for TuDiabetes members to learn from students in this program, but also to give feedback to them in an effort to help them be the best care-givers they can be!

Everybody Talks Diabetes Podcast Corinna Cornejo

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Episode 18: Re-branding Diabetes

In this episode Corinna Cornejo and guest co-host Heather Gabel discuss the second in a series of LIVE Interviews with Dr. Susan Guzman, PhD.

In her last interview on TuDiabetes Susan discussed the shame and blame that people with type 2 diabetes often face, as a result of widespread misunderstanding about what causes this condition, and what it really is.  This week’s discussion will continue that conversation, but move into ideas about how to change the general public concept of type 2 diabetes from one molded by misunderstanding, misinformation and stereotyping into one of compassion, understanding and admiration for the millions of people working hard to thrive with type 2 diabetes.

Susan Guzman, PhD is a clinical psychologist specializing in diabetes. Her clinical and research focus areas include overcoming emotional challenges that interfere with management, family issues, and promoting attitudes that support living well with diabetes, from diagnosis throughout life. Dr. Guzman integrates empathy, acceptance and practical guidance to help people better utilize their strengths in living life with diabetes.

In 2003, Dr. Guzman co-founded the Behavioral Diabetes Institute (BDI), the first non-profit organization devoted to the emotional and behavioral aspects of living with diabetes. At BDI, she has served as the Director of Clinical/Educational Services developing and leading programs for people with diabetes and their families. She developed and led many of BDI’s clinical programs, including “Defeating the Depression/Diabetes Connection” (an intensive, multi-week series), the “Just for Parent’s Program” and “Living Well with Complications” workshop. She also held programs for women with type 1 diabetes, spouses/partners, men with diabetes, and other specialized psycho-educational programs for those with diabetes.

Dr. Guzman received her PhD in Clinical Psychology with an emphasis in health psychology from the California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego in 1998. She specialized in diabetes following the completion of her post-doctoral fellowship at Scripps Mercy Hospital in San Diego where she served as the psychological liaison to Scripps Health’s Diabetes Advisory Committee.

Everybody Talks Diabetes Podcast Corinna Cornejo

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Live interview: smartphone-based artificial pancreas? Introducing inControl, by TypeZero

1pm PT, 4pm ET, 9pm GMT

What time is this where you are?

Join us HERE at the time and date of the event.

The folks at TypeZero have created a suite of products that aim to significantly reduce the burden of blood sugar management for people with diabetes.  They include inControl, which is a smartphone-based artificial pancreas solution that automatically controls insulin delivery, inControl Advice, which is a mobile-based advisory system that generates real-time recommendations for meals, basal rates, bolus calculations and exercise decisions, and inControl Cloud, an analytics and support system that can provide the resources you need as life changes.

We’ll be speaking with 3 members of the TypeZero team:

Patrick Keither-Hynes is a Founder and CTO of TypeZero.  Previously he was an Assistant Research Professor at the UVA’s Center for Diabetes Technology (CDT).  He is the creator of the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs) Artificial Pancreas platform used in more than 15 clinical trials since 2008.  Prior to UVA, Patrick founded Brooktrout Technology, a manufacturer of advanced telecommunication  hardware and software products.  Patrick holds a PhD in Physics from UVA, an MA from Columbia University and a BSc from MIT.

Molly McElwee-Malloy is a nurse and diabetes educator with professional experience diabetes at UVA’s Diabetes Education Management Program, UVA’s Center for Diabetes Technology (CDT), American Association of Diabetes Educators, College Diabetes Network, and the Charlottesville Free Clinic telemedicine program.  Molly has 17 years of experience living with type 1 diabetes. She has been a participant, a study coordinator and researcher involved with artificial pancreas trials with the CDT.

Chad Rogers is a Founder and CEO of TypeZero.  He is a serial entrepreneur who has an extensive background in the development of start-up companies both as an investor, management team member and consultant across a number of high tech sectors. Chad has led and worked for a number successful medical technology and software companies including Hemosonics, AMP3D, Global Emergency Group, Aliph/Jawbone, Axiomatic and InterTrust Technologies.  Chad also has a background in venture capital and private equity investing (Fundamental Capital, Maywick Capital). Chad has an MBA from Haas/UC Berkeley and a degree in Commerce from the McIntire School at UVA.